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التبادل الاعلاني


    grammar rev

    شاطر

    halim

    عدد المساهمات : 72
    تاريخ التسجيل : 09/03/2011

    grammar rev

    مُساهمة من طرف halim في الأربعاء 8 يونيو - 12:22

    Grammar Review


    Past and present tenses


    1. Present
    simple



    ·
    I/You/We work/don't work for a well-known Egyptian
    company
    .


    ·
    He/ She / It lives/doesn't live in Cairo.


    2. In
    Questions
    :


    ·
    When does he/she arrive at work?


    ·
    Where do you/we/they live?


    ·
    Do I/you/we/ they live in Cairo? C Yes, I do. /No, I don't.


    ·
    Does he/she /it live there? C Yes, he does./No, she doesn't.


    3. Use
    the present simple for
    :


    a-
    Habits / repeated actions:


    العادات والأفعال
    (الأحداث المتكررة)



    -
    I go swimming every
    week
    .


    b-
    Situations which are true for a long time.


    المواقف التى تظل صحيحة
    لفترات طويلة.



    -
    He lives in Luxor.


    c-
    Facts that are always true.


    الحقائق التى لا تتغير
    (علمية – عملية)



    -
    Doctors help ill
    people
    .





    Present continuous


    1- Statements:


    §
    I am cooking lunch for my family.


    §
    You/We/They are listening to music on their MP3 players.


    §
    He/She/It is
    running fast
    .


    2- Questions:


    ·
    Are you/we/they studying at the university?


    Yes, we/they are. C No, we/they aren't.


    ·
    Is he/she working this morning?


    Yes, he is. C No, she isn't.


    ·
    Where are
    you/we/they going?



    ·
    What am I doing?


    ·
    When is he/she/it arriving?


    3- Use
    the present continuous for
    :


    1-
    actions that are happening now.


    الأفعال التى تقع الآن
    (لحظة الكلام)



    o I can't see you now. I'm revising for the test.


    2-
    actions that are happening around now.


    الأحداث التى تحدث
    فى الوقت الحالى (فى الغالب تدوم لفترة معينة)



    o My sister is studying English at university.



    Past simple


    1- Statements:


    ·
    I/You/He/She/It/We/They arrived/didn't arrive


    2- Questions:


    ·
    When did l/you/he/she/it/we/they arrive?


    ·
    Did l/you/we/they/he/she/it arrive this morning?


    C Yes, l/you/we/they/he/she/it did.


    C No, l/you/we/they/he/she/it didn't.


    Note:


    Form the past simple of regular
    verbs by adding -d or -ed to the infinitive.



    3- Use
    the past simple for:



    1-
    an action that started and finished in the past.


    حدث بدأ وانتهى فى
    الماضى.



    o She cooked a delicious lunch yesterday.


    2-
    repeated actions in the past.


    حدث متكرر فى
    الماضى.



    o She cooked lunch every day last week.


    4- Common
    errors:



    ·
    I playing tennis yesterday. (played)


    ·
    I was play tennis yesterday. (played)


    Past continuous


    1- Statements
    & questions:



    ·
    I/He/She/It was/wasn't flying.


    ·
    What was he/she/it
    doing?



    ·
    You/We/They were/weren't talking.


    ·
    Where were
    you/we/they flying?



    ·
    Was l/he/she talking
    loudly?



    Yes, you were. C No, you weren't.


    ·
    Were you/we/they talking
    about school?



    Yes, I was. C No, I wasn't.


    2- Use
    the past continuous for:



    1-
    something in progress when an action took place.


    حدث (فعل) كان
    مستمر عندما حدث فعل خر.



    ·
    When he arrived,
    I was watching television.



    2-
    past actions happening at the same time.


    حدثان أو أكثر
    يقعان فى نفس الوقت فى الماضى.



    ·
    While the teacher was
    talking, everyone was taking notes.



    Present perfect


    1) Statements:


    ·
    I/You/We/ They have/haven't played that game yet.


    ·
    He/She has/hasn't finished that book.


    2) Questions:


    ·
    Where has he/she/it gone?


    ·
    What have you/we/they studied?


    ·
    Has he/she/it finished yet?


    Yes, he/she/it has. C No, he/she/it hasn't.


    ·
    Have you/we/they watched that film yet?


    Yes, I have. C No, I haven't.


    Yes, they have. C No, we haven't.


    3) Use
    the present perfect for:



    1-
    actions which began in the past and are still
    continuing.



    حدث بدأ فى الماضى
    ولازال مستمر وغالبا ما تستخدم فى هذه الحالة
    for / since


    o I've read three books this week.


    o I've been at this school since 1997/for ten
    years
    .



    2-
    actions which have happened recently.


    حدث انتهى لتوه
    منذ لحظات قليلة وغالبا نستخدم
    just .


    o I've just finished
    reading this book.



    3-
    past
    experiences (without saying when).



    o Have you ever met anyone famous?


    o She's never met anyone famous yet, but she hopes to
    one day.



    4) Common
    errors



    ·
    I am studying English for five years. (have studied)


    Note:


    To talk about something which
    started in the past and still continues in the present, use the present
    perfect, not the present continuous.



    لا تستخدم المضارع
    المستمر للتعبير عن حدث بدأ فى الماضى وما زال مستمر فى الحاضر.



    ·
    I have been to Italy last year.


    Note: Do not use a specific time in
    the past.
    لا تستخدم المضارع التام عند ذكر وقت محدد فى
    الماضى






    Linking words (conjunctions)


    a- Because: to give a reason


    ·
    It took me a long time to finish the book because it is so long.


    b- but/although to contrast ideas


    Note:


    But can link two adjectives or two
    ideas with verbs.



    يمكن أن تربط but بين صفتين أو فعلين.


    ·
    He is young but strong.


    ·
    Swift wrote many books, but none were as successful as
    Gulliver's Travels.



    ·
    Although he spent his first years in
    England, Swift went to school in Ireland.






    c- if/unless to introduce conditions


    ·
    If you want to know more about Swift, look him up on the
    internet.



    ·
    He won't go to sleep unless you tell him a
    story.



    d- while to link activities in time


    ·
    While I was reading the newspaper, I fell asleep.


    ·
    I heard it while as or the bus.


    Revision of past verb tenses


    Past perfect


    §
    When I woke up, my father had/hadnt left.


    §
    Where had you seen him before?


    §
    Had he/she been there before?


    Yes, he had. C No, she hadn't.


    1) Use
    the past perfect:



    1-
    to show which of two actions or events happened first.


    لتوضح أى من الفعلين
    أو الحدثين وقع أولا.



    ·
    By the time I met John, he had finished
    shopping. (had finished is the earlier
    activity)



    2-
    to explain something that happened earlier in the
    past.



    لتفسير شئ حدث قبل
    (حدث آخر) أو وقت معين فى الماضى.



    ·
    He was tired because he had run all the way
    home.



    2) Common
    error



    ·
    When the police arrived, the robbers was left. (had left)


    The past perfect is had + past
    participle.






    3) Past
    simple and past continuous



    ·
    When I woke up, it was raining.


    ·
    What were you doing when I arrived?





    Use the past simple to show a single
    action (woke up/arrived) which takes place while another action is in progress
    (past continuous: was raining/were you doing).



    الماضى البسيط
    يوضح أن حدث واحد قطع حدث آخر كان مستمرا فى الماضى






    Past simple or present perfect?


    ·
    My brother learnt to drive last year.


    Use the past simple (learnt) for a
    completed past action.



    يستخدم الماضى
    البسيط للتعبير عن حدث اكتمل فى الماضى (لا علاقة له بالحاضر)



    ·
    My brother has learnt to drive.


    Use the present perfect (has learnt)
    for an event that was either recent or when we do not know when it happened: It
    describes the experience in general.



    استخدم المضارع
    التام للتعبير عن حدث إما حدث مؤخرا أو لا نعرف متى حدث بالضبط أو عندما تتكلم
    بصفة عامة عن تجربة فى حياتك.



    Common error


    ·
    I've visited the Pyramids last year.


    If we say when something happened,
    use the past simple.



    Future verb forms


    1- Using
    Will:



    a- will
    + infinitive



    ·
    I expect I will (I'll) see you tomorrow.


    ·
    We will not (won't) meet again until next week.


    ·
    When will she get here?


    ·
    Will they be here soon? Yes, they will. C No, they won't.


    b- Use
    will + infinitive for:



    1-
    Predictions. I
    think you'll enjoy your holiday.



    2-
    Future facts. I'll
    be
    16 next week.



    3-
    Quick decisions. That's
    the phone - I'll answer it.



    4-
    offers. I'll
    go
    shopping with you if you like.



    c- Common
    error



    ·
    The water's boiling - I'm turning, the gas off. (will turn)


    For a quick decision, use will, not
    the present continuous (which is used for an arrangement).



    للقرار السريع نستخدم will بينما نستخدم المضارع
    المستمر عند عمل ترتيبات لشئ عقدت النية على فعله فى المستقبل.



    2- going
    to + infinitive



    ·
    I am (I'm) going to work hard this term.


    ·
    I am not (I'm not) going to be late.


    ·
    What are you going to do when you leave school?


    ·
    Is he/she going to buy that book? Yes,
    she is.
    C No, he isn't.


    ·
    Are you/we going to see the film? Yes, I am/we are. No, I'm not/we're not.


    3- Use
    going to - infinitive for:



    1-
    Plans, intentions and decisions.


    عند التعبير عن شئ
    مخطط له أو عند وجود نيه أو قرار مسبق.



    ·
    I'm going to do more
    exercise next year.



    2-
    Predictions with evidence.


    تنبؤ مع وجود
    دليل.



    ·
    There are no clouds in
    the sky. It's going to be another sunny day.



    4- Present
    continuous for the future



    Use the present continuous to talk
    about the future for arrangements and completed plans.



    يستخدم فى
    المستقبل للتعبير عن الترتيبات والخطط الكاملة



    ·
    The class is visiting
    the museum next week. We are meeting at 9 o'clock on Monday morning.

      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الإثنين 20 فبراير - 21:31