Past and present tenses
I/You/We work/don't work for a well-known Egyptian
He/ She / It lives/doesn't live in Cairo.
When does he/she arrive at work?
Where do you/we/they live?
Do I/you/we/ they live in Cairo? C Yes, I do. /No, I don't.
Does he/she /it live there? C Yes, he does./No, she doesn't.
the present simple for:
Habits / repeated actions:
I go swimming every
Situations which are true for a long time.
المواقف التى تظل صحيحة
He lives in Luxor.
Facts that are always true.
الحقائق التى لا تتغير
(علمية – عملية)
Doctors help ill
I am cooking lunch for my family.
You/We/They are listening to music on their MP3 players.
Are you/we/they studying at the university?
Yes, we/they are. C No, we/they aren't.
Is he/she working this morning?
Yes, he is. C No, she isn't.
What am I doing?
When is he/she/it arriving?
the present continuous for:
actions that are happening now.
الأفعال التى تقع الآن
o I can't see you now. I'm revising for the test.
actions that are happening around now.
الأحداث التى تحدث
فى الوقت الحالى (فى الغالب تدوم لفترة معينة)
o My sister is studying English at university.
I/You/He/She/It/We/They arrived/didn't arrive
When did l/you/he/she/it/we/they arrive?
Did l/you/we/they/he/she/it arrive this morning?
C Yes, l/you/we/they/he/she/it did.
C No, l/you/we/they/he/she/it didn't.
Form the past simple of regular
verbs by adding -d or -ed to the infinitive.
the past simple for:
an action that started and finished in the past.
حدث بدأ وانتهى فى
o She cooked a delicious lunch yesterday.
repeated actions in the past.
حدث متكرر فى
o She cooked lunch every day last week.
I playing tennis yesterday. (played)
I was play tennis yesterday. (played)
I/He/She/It was/wasn't flying.
What was he/she/it
You/We/They were/weren't talking.
Was l/he/she talking
Yes, you were. C No, you weren't.
Were you/we/they talking
Yes, I was. C No, I wasn't.
the past continuous for:
something in progress when an action took place.
حدث (فعل) كان
مستمر عندما حدث فعل خر.
When he arrived,
I was watching television.
past actions happening at the same time.
حدثان أو أكثر
يقعان فى نفس الوقت فى الماضى.
While the teacher was
talking, everyone was taking notes.
I/You/We/ They have/haven't played that game yet.
He/She has/hasn't finished that book.
Where has he/she/it gone?
What have you/we/they studied?
Has he/she/it finished yet?
Yes, he/she/it has. C No, he/she/it hasn't.
Have you/we/they watched that film yet?
Yes, I have. C No, I haven't.
Yes, they have. C No, we haven't.
the present perfect for:
actions which began in the past and are still
حدث بدأ فى الماضى
ولازال مستمر وغالبا ما تستخدم فى هذه الحالة for / since
o I've read three books this week.
o I've been at this school since 1997/for ten
actions which have happened recently.
حدث انتهى لتوه
منذ لحظات قليلة وغالبا نستخدم just .
o I've just finished
reading this book.
experiences (without saying when).
o Have you ever met anyone famous?
o She's never met anyone famous yet, but she hopes to
I am studying English for five years. (have studied)
To talk about something which
started in the past and still continues in the present, use the present
perfect, not the present continuous.
لا تستخدم المضارع
المستمر للتعبير عن حدث بدأ فى الماضى وما زال مستمر فى الحاضر.
I have been to Italy last year.
Note: Do not use a specific time in
the past. لا تستخدم المضارع التام عند ذكر وقت محدد فى
Linking words (conjunctions)
a- Because: to give a reason
It took me a long time to finish the book because it is so long.
b- but/although to contrast ideas
But can link two adjectives or two
ideas with verbs.
يمكن أن تربط but بين صفتين أو فعلين.
He is young but strong.
Swift wrote many books, but none were as successful as
Although he spent his first years in
England, Swift went to school in Ireland.
c- if/unless to introduce conditions
If you want to know more about Swift, look him up on the
He won't go to sleep unless you tell him a
d- while to link activities in time
While I was reading the newspaper, I fell asleep.
I heard it while as or the bus.
Revision of past verb tenses
When I woke up, my father had/hadnt left.
Where had you seen him before?
Had he/she been there before?
Yes, he had. C No, she hadn't.
the past perfect:
to show which of two actions or events happened first.
لتوضح أى من الفعلين
أو الحدثين وقع أولا.
By the time I met John, he had finished
shopping. (had finished is the earlier
to explain something that happened earlier in the
لتفسير شئ حدث قبل
(حدث آخر) أو وقت معين فى الماضى.
He was tired because he had run all the way
When the police arrived, the robbers was left. (had left)
The past perfect is had + past
simple and past continuous
When I woke up, it was raining.
What were you doing when I arrived?
Use the past simple to show a single
action (woke up/arrived) which takes place while another action is in progress
(past continuous: was raining/were you doing).
يوضح أن حدث واحد قطع حدث آخر كان مستمرا فى الماضى
Past simple or present perfect?
My brother learnt to drive last year.
Use the past simple (learnt) for a
completed past action.
البسيط للتعبير عن حدث اكتمل فى الماضى (لا علاقة له بالحاضر)
My brother has learnt to drive.
Use the present perfect (has learnt)
for an event that was either recent or when we do not know when it happened: It
describes the experience in general.
التام للتعبير عن حدث إما حدث مؤخرا أو لا نعرف متى حدث بالضبط أو عندما تتكلم
بصفة عامة عن تجربة فى حياتك.
I've visited the Pyramids last year.
If we say when something happened,
use the past simple.
Future verb forms
I expect I will (I'll) see you tomorrow.
We will not (won't) meet again until next week.
When will she get here?
Will they be here soon? Yes, they will. C No, they won't.
will + infinitive for:
think you'll enjoy your holiday.
Future facts. I'll
be 16 next week.
Quick decisions. That's
the phone - I'll answer it.
go shopping with you if you like.
The water's boiling - I'm turning, the gas off. (will turn)
For a quick decision, use will, not
the present continuous (which is used for an arrangement).
للقرار السريع نستخدم will بينما نستخدم المضارع
المستمر عند عمل ترتيبات لشئ عقدت النية على فعله فى المستقبل.
to + infinitive
I am (I'm) going to work hard this term.
I am not (I'm not) going to be late.
What are you going to do when you leave school?
Is he/she going to buy that book? Yes,
she is. C No, he isn't.
Are you/we going to see the film? Yes, I am/we are. No, I'm not/we're not.
going to - infinitive for:
Plans, intentions and decisions.
عند التعبير عن شئ
مخطط له أو عند وجود نيه أو قرار مسبق.
I'm going to do more
exercise next year.
Predictions with evidence.
تنبؤ مع وجود
There are no clouds in
the sky. It's going to be another sunny day.
continuous for the future
Use the present continuous to talk
about the future for arrangements and completed plans.
المستقبل للتعبير عن الترتيبات والخطط الكاملة
The class is visiting
the museum next week. We are meeting at 9 o'clock on Monday morning.