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التبادل الاعلاني


    grammar rev

    شاطر

    halim

    عدد المساهمات : 72
    تاريخ التسجيل : 09/03/2011

    grammar rev

    مُساهمة من طرف halim في الأربعاء 8 يونيو - 12:27

    Question tags


    A question tag is a short question
    which is added to a sentence, usually in conversations.



    Sentence





    1- Question
    tag



    1)
    It was very interesting, wasn't it?


    2)
    Pesticides can be poisonous, can't they?


    3)
    We should leave that discussion until another day,
    shouldn't we?



    4)
    We didn't need chemical fertilisers then, did we?


    5)
    We havent talked about the subject of genetically
    modified crops yet, have we?



    6)
    You read that newspaper article about farming, didn't
    you?






    2- Notes:


    1.
    Negative question tags follow affirmative verbs in the
    main sentence.



    السؤال المذيل
    المنفى يتبع فعل مثبت فى الجملة الرئيسية.



    2.
    Affirmative question tags follow negative verbs in the
    main sentence.



    السؤال المذيل
    المثبت يتبع فعل منفى فى الجملة الرئيسة.



    3.
    Question tags have the same subject as the main verbs.


    السؤال المذيل
    بحتوى على نفس فاعل الجملة الرئيسة(ولاحظ لابد وان يكون ضمير لا اسما)



    4.
    In question tags, the verb comes before the subject.


    فى السؤال المذيل
    الفعل المساعد يأتى دائما قبل الفاعل.



    5.
    Question tags which follow in the simple present or
    simple past use an auxiliary verb. (see sentence 6).



    إذا كانت الجملة
    فى زمن المضارع البسيط أو الماضى البسيط استخدم
    do, does or did


    3- Question
    tags can be used for two purposes:



    هناك غرضين
    لاستخدام السؤال المذيل.



    1-
    to check information you think is correct. or to ask
    for another person's agreement. In this case, the speaker's voice goes down on
    the question tag.



    للتأكد إذا كانت
    المعلومة صحيحة ام لا أو إذا رغبت أن تطلب موافقة الشخص الآخر على رأيك وفى هذه
    الحالة ينخفض الصوت عند نطقك للسؤال المذيل.



    2-
    to find information you are not sure of. This is a
    real question, so the speaker's voice goes up at the question tag. 



    للحصول على معلومة
    انت لست متأكدا منها وبالتالى فهو سؤال
    حقيقى لذلك يرتفع الصوت عكس الحالة الأولى.



    4- Common
    errors



    1-
    We didn't need chemical fertilisers then, didn't we? (did we?)


    Use affirmative question tags with
    negative verbs.



    2-
    We haven't talked about genetically modified crops
    yet, have they? (have we?)



    The subject of the question tag is
    always the same as the subject of the main verb.



    3-
    You read that newspaper article about farming, haven't
    you
    ? (didn't you?)



    The tense of the question tag is
    always the same as the tense of the main verb.






    Past perfect simple and continuous


    Past perfect


    Use the past perfect to show which
    of two actions or events happened first. See also



    [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة] He looked tired
    yesterday because he'd slept badly the night before.



    Past perfect continuous


    §
    I/they had (not) been waiting for an hour when the
    train arrived.



    §
    What had he been doing before the accident happened?


    §
    Had you been waiting long before he arrived?


    Yes, we had. C No, we hadn't.


    Use the past perfect
    continuous:



    1-
    to describe something that happened for a length of
    time before another action in the past.



    عند وصف حدث
    (استمر لفترة من الوقت) قبل حدث آخر.



    §
    We'd been waiting for
    three hours before our plane took off.



    2-
    to give a reason for an event in the past.


    لإعطاء سبب
    (تفسير) لحدث آخر فى الماضى.



    §
    There were floods
    because it had been raining for three days.



    Pronouns and reflexive pronouns



    Subject

    I

    you

    he

    she

    it

    we

    they



    ˜

    ˜

    ˜

    ˜

    ˜

    ˜

    ˜

    Object

    me

    you

    him

    her

    it

    us

    them



    ˜

    ˜

    ˜

    ˜

    ˜

    ˜

    ˜

    Possessive

    mine

    yours

    his

    hers

    ––––

    ours

    theirs



    ˜

    ˜

    ˜

    ˜

    ˜

    ˜

    ˜

    Reflexive

    myself

    yourself

    yourselves

    himself

    herself

    itself

    ourselves

    themselves





    1. Use
    reflexive pronouns:



    1-
    when the subject and object of a sentence are the
    same.



    تستخدم الضمائر
    الانعكاسية اذا كان الفاعل والمفعول نفس الشخص.




    §
    Sarah fell over, but
    she didn't hurt herself.



    2-
    for emphasis.


    تستخدم أيضا
    للتاكيد.



    §
    We did all the work
    ourselves. Nobody did it for us.



    2. Common
    error



    [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة] I showered myself and dressed myself in ten minutes.


    We do not normally use reflexive
    pronouns after wash, shower, dress.



    لا تستخدم الضمائر
    الانعكاسية مع أفعال مثل
    wash shower and dress





    Conditional sentences


    1- Zero
    conditional



    If + present simple + present simple:


    [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة] If I feel tired, I go to bed.


    [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة] I go to bed if I feel tired.


    Note:


    In conditional sentences of all
    kinds, the if clause can be the first or
    second part of the sentence.



    Use zero
    conditional sentences:



    to describe actions or things which
    are usually true. In these sentences:



    تستخدم الحالة
    الصفرية عندما نصف حدث أو شئ دائما حقيقى أو صحيح وتساوى
    when :


    [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة] if = when. If I feel thirsty, I drink water.


    2- First
    conditional



    If + present simple + will + infinitive


    §
    If we don't go now, we
    won't catch the bus.



    Use first
    conditional sentences:



    to refer to an action which we think
    is possible in the future.



    تستخدم الحالة
    الأولى عندما نشير إلى حدث يمكن (من المحتمل) حدوثه فى المستقبل.



    §
    If I pass the exam,
    I'll be very happy.



    3- Second
    conditional



    If + past simple + would + infinitive


    §
    If you worked harder,
    you would get higher marks.



    Use second
    conditional sentences:



    to refer to an action which we think
    will probably not happen in the future.



    الحالة الثانية
    تشير إلى حدث غير محتمل حدوثه فى المستقبل.



    §
    If people lived on the
    moon, they would be tired and bored.



    Common error


    §
    If would have
    more time, I would visit my friends in Dubai. (had)



    4- Third
    conditional



    If + past perfect + would have + past participle


    §
    If he had left on
    time, he wouldn't have missed the bus (but he did miss it).



    Use third
    conditional sentences:



    to refer to an imagined action in
    the past.



    تشير إلى حدث
    تخيلى فى الماضى (عكسه قد حدث فى الماضى) مستحيل الحدوث.



    §
    If you had got the
    job, you would have lived in Luxor (but you didn't get the job so you don't). 



    Common error:


    §
    If you would have
    worked harder, you would have passed the test. (had)






    Prepositions


    1) Prepositions
    after nouns



    1.
    What was the reason for the accident?


    2.
    There has been an increase in the number of
    tourists going to Luxor.



    3.
    Many people are worried about the problem of
    climate change.



    4.
    The earthquake caused damage to many houses.


    5.
    My uncle worked for the reform of education.


    6.
    We never discovered the cause of the accident.


    7.
    I don't understand the popularity of Rider
    Haggard's stories.



    8.
    What is the answer
    to
    the problem of climate change?






    2) Prepositions
    after adjectives



    1.
    He is brilliant/good/bad at writing exciting
    stories.



    2.
    Shakespeare was most famous for his plays.


    3.
    He was keen on writing, even as a boy.


    4.
    I'd be interested in learning more about Rider
    Haggard.



    5.
    I was angry/annoyed/disappointed with him for
    being late.



    6.
    I'm proud of my brother - he has done so well
    at school.



    7.
    My little brother is afraid/frightened/terrified
    of birds.



    8.
    Are you worried/excited/happy about going to
    China?



    9.
    I'm sorry about forgetting to phone you.


    10.
    Football has always been popular with young
    boys.



    3) Prepositions
    after verbs



    1.
    Where can I find out about climate change?


    2.
    My brother is going to apply for a job at the
    university.



    3.
    The explorers were looking for diamonds.


    4.
    He helped in the reform of education.


    5.
    Until I read King Solomon's Mines, I'd never heard
    of
    Rider Haggard.



    6.
    I think that car belongs to one of our
    teachers.



    7.
    He died of heart disease.





    Passive verbs


    1. Passive
    verbs are formed from:



    1-
    the verb be (in the tense of the active verb) + the
    past participle of a verb



    نستخدم v. to be فى نفس زمن
    الفعل فى الجملة الأصلية (المبنية للمعلوم)



    2-
    The object of an active verb is used as the subject of
    the passive verb.



    مفعول الفعل يصبح فاعلا فى المبنى للمجهول.


    Example:


    §
    Jonathan Swift wrote
    Gulliver's Travels. (Active)



    §
    Gulliver's Travels was
    written by Jonathan Swift. (Passive)






    3-
    The subject of an active verb is the agent of the
    passive verb and is introduced by the preposition by. Passive sentences do not
    always include an agent.



    الفاعل الحقسقى
    يصبح مفعولا ويسبق بحرف الجر
    by وليست كل
    الجمل فى المبنى للمجهول تحتوى على الفاعل الحقيقى.



    §
    We sold the car for $500. (Active)


    §
    The car was sold for
    $500 (by us). (Passive)






    2. Intransitive
    verbs (which never have an object) cannot be used in the passive.



    الأفعال اللازمة
    التى لاتأتى بعدها مفعول بالطبع لا تحول.



    §
    She walked for three
    hours.



    (No passive form is possible as walk
    is an intransitive verb.)



    3. Formation:


    1.
    Present simple: Houses are designed to be
    warm in winter and cool in summer.



    2.
    Present continuous: Our car is being repaired
    this week.



    3.
    Past simple: These flats were built in 1965.


    4.
    Past continuous: The
    car was being driven too fast.



    5.
    Present perfect: We've
    been invited
    to a party at the weekend.



    6.
    Past perfect: The students had been warned
    about being late for school.



    7.
    Future with will: I
    expect we'll be told where to go.






    4. Use
    the passive:



    1-
    to show what you are more interested in.


    لنوضح أيهما أهم :


    §
    My friend painted this picture last year. (You
    are interested in the friend.)



    §
    This picture was painted by my friend last year. (You
    are interested in the picture.)



    2-
    when you do not know, or it does not matter, who did
    the action.



    عندما لا نعرف من
    قام بالفعل أو عندما لا يهم أن نذكر من قام بالفعل.



    §
    Two books have been
    taken from our classroom.



    (We do not know who took them.)


    §
    Before roads were
    built across the desert, few visitors came to this town.



    (It does not matter who built the roads.)


    3-
    when it is obvious who did the action.


    عندما يكون من
    الواضح معرفة الفاعل.



    §
    They were arrested at
    the airport. (Only police officers can arrest people.)



    5. Passive
    expressions starting with It...



    1-
    It is known that people have lived in the
    desert for thousands of years.



    = We know that people have lived in the desert for thousands of years. (Less formal expressions)


    2-
    It is said that the building of the Temple of
    Edfu was started in 237 BC.



    People say that the building of the Temple of Edfu was started in 237
    BC. (Less formal expressions)






    3-
    It is believed that wolves and foxes were hunted
    in Sinai 3,000 years ago.



    = We believe that wolves and foxes were hunted in Sinai 3,000 years ago.
    (Less formal expressions)



    must, have to, need to


    1- must/mustn't


    Use must/mustn't + infinitive to
    express strong feelings or wishes:



    للتعبير عن رغبة
    أو شعور قوى (داخلى)



    1-
    You mustn't smoke in hospitals. (a rule)


    2-
    You must come and see us at the weekend. (a warm invitation)


    3-
    You must wash your hands before you eat. (strong advice)


    4-
    We must buy souvenirs for our friends here. (a strong reminder to ourselves)
    تذكرة قوية لأنفسنا


    Common errors


    §
    I must to buy
    some bread. Do not use to
    with the infinitive after must.



    §
    He must go to
    hospital yesterday. (had
    to)



    If we want to talk about past
    obligations, we use had to, not must.






    2- have
    to/don't have to



    Use have to/don't have to +
    infinitive when :



    1.
    we cannot choose whether to do something or not.


    2.
    You can use have to in all the verb tenses.


    3.
    It is also used for the future and past forms of must.


    تستخدم have to بدلا من must وتستخدم had to كماضى من must و will have to كمستقبل من must .


    §
    My brother and I have
    to go to school every day.



    §
    My grandfather had to
    work six days a week.



    §
    The flight is at six
    in the morning, so we'll have to get up very early.



    3- need
    to/don't need to



    Use need to/don't need to to refer
    to actions that are or are not necessary. It is very similar in meaning to have
    to/don't have to:



    §
    I have no money - I need
    to
    get some from my bank.



    §
    When you're on
    holiday, you don't need to go to bed early



    Note


    1-
    You can sometimes use have got to instead of have to,
    e.g.:



    §
    We've got to give in
    our homework tomorrow.



    2-
    You can use needn't + infinitive without to instead of
    don't need to.:



    §
    When you're on
    holiday, you needn't get up early.






    Passive verbs


    The infinitive form of passive verbs


    Be / to be + p.p.


    §
    Because of technology,
    larger and larger buildings can be built in modern cities.



    §
    He went to university
    to be trained as a doctor.



    §
    The Great Wall of
    China could be seen from space.



    Modal verbs


    can/could for ability/ possibility
    and permission



    1- Possibility


    This use of can
    is usually a generalization or a supposition



    تستخدم can للتعبير عن احتمال عام.


    §
    Some cars can use
    electricity. (This is possible.)



    §
    He can't be Egyptian.
    His parents are English. (This is not possible.)



    could is used to
    express possibility in the past present or future.



    يمكن
    استخدام
    could
    للتعبير عن الاحتمال فى المستقبل.


    §
    We could ban cars from
    cities. (This would be possible if we wanted it.)






    2- Ability


    تستخدم can للتعبير عن القدرة فى المضارع.


    §
    I can see very well
    without glasses. (I have this
    ability.)



    §
    We can solve this
    problem. (We have the ability to solve this problem./lt is possible for us to
    solve it.)



    Use could/couldn't for general past
    abilities:



    تستخدم could للتعبير عن قدرة عامة فى الماضى.


    §
    I could swim at the
    age of six.



    §
    I couldn't ride a
    bicycle until the age of nine.



    Do not use could for a particular
    past ability. Instead, use was able to/managed to/succeeded in + -ing:



    لا تستخدم could للتعبير عن قدرة خاصة فى الماضى ولكن نستخدم
    بدلا منها :



    was / were able to + المصدر


    managed to + المصدر


    succeeded in + -ing.


    §
    I took my car to the
    garage this morning, where one of the mechanics was able to/managed to start
    it.
    a momentary or one-time ability.


    §
    I'd been trying to
    send that e-mail all day. Finally, I succeeded in sending it at six o'clock in
    the evening.
    a momentary or one-time
    ability.



    Common errors


    §
    Finally, I could send the e-mail at six o'clock. (managed to – was able to)


    Do not use could to refer to a
    particular past ability.






    3- Permission


    a- Use
    can or can't for present permission:



    §
    In some countries, you
    can drive at the age of 17. (The law says this is permitted.)



    §
    In some cities, people
    can't use their cars every day. (This is not permitted/it is against the law.)



    b- Use
    could/couldn't to refer to past permission:



    إذن أو تصريح فى الماضى


    §
    In the past, people
    could drive a car without passing a driving test.






    c- Use
    can/could to refer to future permission:



    إذن أو
    تصريح فى المستقبل.



    §
    You can/could borrow
    my car tomorrow.






    d- You
    can also use may for present or future permission. This is polite or formal.



    تستخدم may بدلا من can / could لإعطاء طلب أو إذن بطريقة مهذبة أو بطريقة
    رسمية.



    §
    You may borrow my car
    tomorrow if you like.



    §
    May I use your phone,
    please ?

      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الإثنين 26 يونيو - 22:36