A question tag is a short question
which is added to a sentence, usually in conversations.
It was very interesting, wasn't it?
Pesticides can be poisonous, can't they?
We should leave that discussion until another day,
We didn't need chemical fertilisers then, did we?
We havent talked about the subject of genetically
modified crops yet, have we?
You read that newspaper article about farming, didn't
Negative question tags follow affirmative verbs in the
المنفى يتبع فعل مثبت فى الجملة الرئيسية.
Affirmative question tags follow negative verbs in the
المثبت يتبع فعل منفى فى الجملة الرئيسة.
Question tags have the same subject as the main verbs.
بحتوى على نفس فاعل الجملة الرئيسة(ولاحظ لابد وان يكون ضمير لا اسما)
In question tags, the verb comes before the subject.
فى السؤال المذيل
الفعل المساعد يأتى دائما قبل الفاعل.
Question tags which follow in the simple present or
simple past use an auxiliary verb. (see sentence 6).
إذا كانت الجملة
فى زمن المضارع البسيط أو الماضى البسيط استخدم do, does or did
tags can be used for two purposes:
لاستخدام السؤال المذيل.
to check information you think is correct. or to ask
for another person's agreement. In this case, the speaker's voice goes down on
the question tag.
للتأكد إذا كانت
المعلومة صحيحة ام لا أو إذا رغبت أن تطلب موافقة الشخص الآخر على رأيك وفى هذه
الحالة ينخفض الصوت عند نطقك للسؤال المذيل.
to find information you are not sure of. This is a
real question, so the speaker's voice goes up at the question tag.
للحصول على معلومة
انت لست متأكدا منها وبالتالى فهو سؤال
حقيقى لذلك يرتفع الصوت عكس الحالة الأولى.
We didn't need chemical fertilisers then, didn't we? (did we?)
Use affirmative question tags with
We haven't talked about genetically modified crops
yet, have they? (have we?)
The subject of the question tag is
always the same as the subject of the main verb.
You read that newspaper article about farming, haven't
you? (didn't you?)
The tense of the question tag is
always the same as the tense of the main verb.
Past perfect simple and continuous
Use the past perfect to show which
of two actions or events happened first. See also
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة] He looked tired
yesterday because he'd slept badly the night before.
Past perfect continuous
I/they had (not) been waiting for an hour when the
What had he been doing before the accident happened?
Had you been waiting long before he arrived?
Yes, we had. C No, we hadn't.
Use the past perfect
to describe something that happened for a length of
time before another action in the past.
عند وصف حدث
(استمر لفترة من الوقت) قبل حدث آخر.
We'd been waiting for
three hours before our plane took off.
to give a reason for an event in the past.
(تفسير) لحدث آخر فى الماضى.
There were floods
because it had been raining for three days.
Pronouns and reflexive pronouns
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when the subject and object of a sentence are the
الانعكاسية اذا كان الفاعل والمفعول نفس الشخص.
Sarah fell over, but
she didn't hurt herself.
We did all the work
ourselves. Nobody did it for us.
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة] I showered myself and dressed myself in ten minutes.
We do not normally use reflexive
pronouns after wash, shower, dress.
لا تستخدم الضمائر
الانعكاسية مع أفعال مثل wash shower and dress
If + present simple + present simple:
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة] If I feel tired, I go to bed.
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة] I go to bed if I feel tired.
In conditional sentences of all
kinds, the if clause can be the first or
second part of the sentence.
to describe actions or things which
are usually true. In these sentences:
الصفرية عندما نصف حدث أو شئ دائما حقيقى أو صحيح وتساوى when :
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة] if = when. If I feel thirsty, I drink water.
If + present simple + will + infinitive
If we don't go now, we
won't catch the bus.
to refer to an action which we think
is possible in the future.
الأولى عندما نشير إلى حدث يمكن (من المحتمل) حدوثه فى المستقبل.
If I pass the exam,
I'll be very happy.
If + past simple + would + infinitive
If you worked harder,
you would get higher marks.
to refer to an action which we think
will probably not happen in the future.
تشير إلى حدث غير محتمل حدوثه فى المستقبل.
If people lived on the
moon, they would be tired and bored.
If would have
more time, I would visit my friends in Dubai. (had)
If + past perfect + would have + past participle
If he had left on
time, he wouldn't have missed the bus (but he did miss it).
to refer to an imagined action in
تشير إلى حدث
تخيلى فى الماضى (عكسه قد حدث فى الماضى) مستحيل الحدوث.
If you had got the
job, you would have lived in Luxor (but you didn't get the job so you don't).
If you would have
worked harder, you would have passed the test. (had)
What was the reason for the accident?
There has been an increase in the number of
tourists going to Luxor.
Many people are worried about the problem of
The earthquake caused damage to many houses.
My uncle worked for the reform of education.
We never discovered the cause of the accident.
I don't understand the popularity of Rider
What is the answer
to the problem of climate change?
He is brilliant/good/bad at writing exciting
Shakespeare was most famous for his plays.
He was keen on writing, even as a boy.
I'd be interested in learning more about Rider
I was angry/annoyed/disappointed with him for
I'm proud of my brother - he has done so well
My little brother is afraid/frightened/terrified
Are you worried/excited/happy about going to
I'm sorry about forgetting to phone you.
Football has always been popular with young
Where can I find out about climate change?
My brother is going to apply for a job at the
The explorers were looking for diamonds.
He helped in the reform of education.
Until I read King Solomon's Mines, I'd never heard
of Rider Haggard.
I think that car belongs to one of our
He died of heart disease.
verbs are formed from:
the verb be (in the tense of the active verb) + the
past participle of a verb
نستخدم v. to be فى نفس زمن
الفعل فى الجملة الأصلية (المبنية للمعلوم)
The object of an active verb is used as the subject of
the passive verb.
مفعول الفعل يصبح فاعلا فى المبنى للمجهول.
Jonathan Swift wrote
Gulliver's Travels. (Active)
Gulliver's Travels was
written by Jonathan Swift. (Passive)
The subject of an active verb is the agent of the
passive verb and is introduced by the preposition by. Passive sentences do not
always include an agent.
يصبح مفعولا ويسبق بحرف الجر by وليست كل
الجمل فى المبنى للمجهول تحتوى على الفاعل الحقيقى.
We sold the car for $500. (Active)
The car was sold for
$500 (by us). (Passive)
verbs (which never have an object) cannot be used in the passive.
التى لاتأتى بعدها مفعول بالطبع لا تحول.
She walked for three
(No passive form is possible as walk
is an intransitive verb.)
Present simple: Houses are designed to be
warm in winter and cool in summer.
Present continuous: Our car is being repaired
Past simple: These flats were built in 1965.
Past continuous: The
car was being driven too fast.
Present perfect: We've
been invited to a party at the weekend.
Past perfect: The students had been warned
about being late for school.
Future with will: I
expect we'll be told where to go.
to show what you are more interested in.
لنوضح أيهما أهم :
My friend painted this picture last year. (You
are interested in the friend.)
This picture was painted by my friend last year. (You
are interested in the picture.)
when you do not know, or it does not matter, who did
عندما لا نعرف من
قام بالفعل أو عندما لا يهم أن نذكر من قام بالفعل.
Two books have been
taken from our classroom.
(We do not know who took them.)
Before roads were
built across the desert, few visitors came to this town.
(It does not matter who built the roads.)
when it is obvious who did the action.
عندما يكون من
الواضح معرفة الفاعل.
They were arrested at
the airport. (Only police officers can arrest people.)
expressions starting with It...
It is known that people have lived in the
desert for thousands of years.
= We know that people have lived in the desert for thousands of years. (Less formal expressions)
It is said that the building of the Temple of
Edfu was started in 237 BC.
People say that the building of the Temple of Edfu was started in 237
BC. (Less formal expressions)
It is believed that wolves and foxes were hunted
in Sinai 3,000 years ago.
= We believe that wolves and foxes were hunted in Sinai 3,000 years ago.
(Less formal expressions)
must, have to, need to
Use must/mustn't + infinitive to
express strong feelings or wishes:
للتعبير عن رغبة
أو شعور قوى (داخلى)
You mustn't smoke in hospitals. (a rule)
You must come and see us at the weekend. (a warm invitation)
You must wash your hands before you eat. (strong advice)
We must buy souvenirs for our friends here. (a strong reminder to ourselves)
تذكرة قوية لأنفسنا
I must to buy
some bread. Do not use to
with the infinitive after must.
He must go to
hospital yesterday. (had
If we want to talk about past
obligations, we use had to, not must.
to/don't have to
Use have to/don't have to +
infinitive when :
we cannot choose whether to do something or not.
You can use have to in all the verb tenses.
It is also used for the future and past forms of must.
تستخدم have to بدلا من must وتستخدم had to كماضى من must و will have to كمستقبل من must .
My brother and I have
to go to school every day.
My grandfather had to
work six days a week.
The flight is at six
in the morning, so we'll have to get up very early.
to/don't need to
Use need to/don't need to to refer
to actions that are or are not necessary. It is very similar in meaning to have
to/don't have to:
I have no money - I need
to get some from my bank.
When you're on
holiday, you don't need to go to bed early
You can sometimes use have got to instead of have to,
We've got to give in
our homework tomorrow.
You can use needn't + infinitive without to instead of
don't need to.:
When you're on
holiday, you needn't get up early.
The infinitive form of passive verbs
Be / to be + p.p.
Because of technology,
larger and larger buildings can be built in modern cities.
He went to university
to be trained as a doctor.
The Great Wall of
China could be seen from space.
can/could for ability/ possibility
This use of can
is usually a generalization or a supposition
تستخدم can للتعبير عن احتمال عام.
Some cars can use
electricity. (This is possible.)
He can't be Egyptian.
His parents are English. (This is not possible.)
could is used to
express possibility in the past present or future.
للتعبير عن الاحتمال فى المستقبل.
We could ban cars from
cities. (This would be possible if we wanted it.)
تستخدم can للتعبير عن القدرة فى المضارع.
I can see very well
without glasses. (I have this
We can solve this
problem. (We have the ability to solve this problem./lt is possible for us to
Use could/couldn't for general past
تستخدم could للتعبير عن قدرة عامة فى الماضى.
I could swim at the
age of six.
I couldn't ride a
bicycle until the age of nine.
Do not use could for a particular
past ability. Instead, use was able to/managed to/succeeded in + -ing:
لا تستخدم could للتعبير عن قدرة خاصة فى الماضى ولكن نستخدم
بدلا منها :
was / were able to + المصدر
managed to + المصدر
succeeded in + -ing.
I took my car to the
garage this morning, where one of the mechanics was able to/managed to start
it. a momentary or one-time ability.
I'd been trying to
send that e-mail all day. Finally, I succeeded in sending it at six o'clock in
the evening. a momentary or one-time
Finally, I could send the e-mail at six o'clock. (managed to – was able to)
Do not use could to refer to a
particular past ability.
can or can't for present permission:
In some countries, you
can drive at the age of 17. (The law says this is permitted.)
In some cities, people
can't use their cars every day. (This is not permitted/it is against the law.)
could/couldn't to refer to past permission:
إذن أو تصريح فى الماضى
In the past, people
could drive a car without passing a driving test.
can/could to refer to future permission:
تصريح فى المستقبل.
You can/could borrow
my car tomorrow.
can also use may for present or future permission. This is polite or formal.
تستخدم may بدلا من can / could لإعطاء طلب أو إذن بطريقة مهذبة أو بطريقة
You may borrow my car
tomorrow if you like.
May I use your phone,